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Walla Walla Valley


Vine to Wine - A Story of Four Seasons in the Walla Walla Valley from Wine Alliance on Vimeo.

06-29-12-0187Walla Walla represents the best of the Pacific Northwest wine industry for very good reason.  This valley has been a regional agricultural hub for more than a century; and it still abounds with crisp apples, juicy strawberries, tender asparagus, sumptuous sweet onions, and a cornucopia of other vibrant produce.  Nearly 2,000 acres of prime vineyards and more than 100 remarkable wineries are just the most recent expression of a rich farming heritage.

Official recognition began in February of 1984, when the federal government designated the Walla Walla Valley as an American Viticultural Area (AVA).  Viewed on a map, the appellation’s boundaries suggest the shape of a cut diamond—which is completely appropriate since there are so many striking facets to our region.  For example, the Walla Walla Valley overtly straddles state lines: two-thirds of the AVA is in Washington and one-third is in Oregon.  Why?  Because the finest wines reflect nature, and Mother Nature doesn’t recognize political borders.  Nor does she generate anything approaching monotonous uniformity.  So the elevations across our appellation soar between 400 feet and 2,000 feet above sea level.  Similarly, annual rainfall figures triple from a sparse seven inches at the western end of the valley to a lush 22 inches along the foothills of the Blue Mountains to the east.  If these attributes sound complex, you are correct.  But wait until you consider our mosaic of soils. Please see the Terroir page for a solid grounding in our very distinctive dirt.

11-04-11-8046Of course, a wine region is more than terrain.  At the heart of our valley is historic downtown Walla Walla.  It’s a welcoming place with buzzy restaurants, boutique shops, neighborly cafés, and tempting tasting rooms.  It’s also home to a rich and diverse arts scene—exemplified by public sculptures, studios, galleries, theatres, the world-renowned Walla Walla Foundry, and the longest continuously running symphony west of the Mississippi River.  Also close at hand are beautiful golf courses, expansive city parks, as well as superb hiking, cycling, and skiing in the Blue Mountains.  All reasons to experience our amazing appellation.

Facts on the Valley


Latitude 46° N, Longitude 118.5° W
In France, latitude 46°N lies midway between Bordeaux and Burgundy.

Area of AVA:

1306 km2 = 504 mi2 = 322794 acres = 130630 hectares
2,836 acres of planted vineyards in the Walla Walla Valley AVA
43% in Oregon, 57% in Washington

Maximum elevation: 2000 ft (610 m)
Minimum elevation: 400 ft (122 m)
Median elevation: 990 ft (302 m)


Average Growing Season (April 1 - October 31) temperature
Cool sites: 60° F (15.5°C)
Warm sites: 66° F (18.9°C)
Average for AVA: 63° F (17.2°C)

Average Growing Degree-Days 50° F (10°C)
Cool sites: 2650 (1472)
Warm sites: 2900 (1611)
Average for AVA: 2800 (1556)

Average precipitation
Minimum on west (dry) side of AVA: 7 in (17.8 cm)
Maximum on east (wet) side of AVA: 22 in (55.9 cm)
Average for AVA: 15 in (38.1 cm)

Maximum hours of daylight: 15:46 (summer solstice)
Average hours of daylight during growing season: 13:52

Average number of frost-free days: 215
On average, last frost occurs during the last week of March
On average, first frost occurs during the last week of October


Bedrock is Basalt (dark volcanic rock) of Miocene age (15 million years)
Below 1200 ft. (valley floor), bedrock is overlain by (in order) ancient gravels, Missoula flood sediments (silt, sand, and gravel), and wind-deposited silt (loess). Above 1200 ft. (foothills) bedrock is overlain by loess of varying thickness

Four distinct soil terroirs
1) Soil type: Wind-deposited silt (loess) overlying Missoula flood sediments
Location: Valley floor
Representative soil series: Ellisforde silt loam
Example vineyards: Pepperbridge, Birch Creek, Lower Seven Hills, Windrow

2) Soil type: Thick wind-deposited silt (loess) overlying basalt bedrock
Location: Foothills
Representative soil series: Walla Walla silt loam
Example vineyards: Les Collines, Leonetti Loess, Spring Valley, Sevein

3) Soil type: Basalt cobblestone gravels
Location: floodplains of Walla Walla River and Mill Creek near cities of Milton-Freewater and Walla Walla
Representative soil series: Freewater very cobbly loam
Example Vineyards: Cayuse Armada, Zerba Winesap, Waliser Yellowjacket,

4) Soil type: Very thin wind-deposited silt (loess) on basalt bedrock
Location: Steep slopes in foothills and canyons
Representative soil series: Lickskillet very stony loam